"Forman, James (1928-2005) | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed." Forman, James
(1928-2005) | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed. Black Past Organization, n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2015.
This article highlights the major issues that James Forman fought for during his life within the
Civil Rights Movement. In 1958, Forman became involved in the Civil Rights Movement in the South when he covered the Little Rock, Arkansas school desegregation crisis for the black newspaper, the Chicago Defender. Through a program organized by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), Forman also helped provide food and clothing to 700 Fayetteville, Tennessee sharecropper families who had been evicted for registering to vote. This shows the passion that Forman had for what he believed in and the great desire he had to make a difference.
"James Forman: Visionary Videos: NVLP: African American History." James Forman:
Visionary Videos: NVLP: African American History. The National Visionary Leadership
Project, n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2015.
This article written by the National Visionary Leadership Project highlights the work of James
Forman within the civil rights movement. In the 1980s Forman led the Unemployment and
Poverty Action Committee, started a short-lived newspaper, and formed the Black American News Service. Forman also earned his masters degree. In African American Studies from Cornell University in 1980 and his Ph.D. from the Union of Experimental Colleges and Universities, in cooperation with the Institute for Policy Studies, in 1982. Forman was a visionary and a transcendent personality that helped right the wrongs done to African Americans throughout his life.
"James Forman | Who Speaks for the Negro?" James Forman | Who Speaks for the Negro?
Vanderbilt University, n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2015.
James Forman was a fighter for African American rights. A sometimes-critic of
Martin Luther King, Jr., Forman served briefly as the minister of foreign affairs of the Black Panther Party following his resignation from SNCC, and he voiced calls for African Americans to receive reparations for their years of enslavement. Later, Forman earned a master's degree from Cornell and a doctorate from the Union Institute, and he served as president of the Unemployment and Poverty Action Committee in Washington. The essence of this article is that
"James Forman." Stanford. Stanford University, n.d. Web. 24 Mar. 2015.
James Forman had a large role in the SNCC or the Student Nonviolent Coordinating
Committee. After he was expelled from the disintegrating SNCC in 1968, Forman joined the
League of Revolutionary Black Workers. In April 1969 he and other League members took control of the National Black Economic Development Conference in Detroit, and a month later he interrupted a service at New York's Riverside Church to read his "Black Manifesto," a demand that white churches pay half a billion dollars to blacks as reparations for previous exploitation. He received a master's degree in African and Afro-American history from Cornell University and a Ph.D. from the Union of Experimental Colleges and Universities. In 1981 he published his thesis, Self-Determination and the African-American People, in which he advocated an autonomous black nation in the Black Belt region of the United States. This shows the level of dedication he had to the Civil Rights movement.
Forman, James. The making of black revolutionaries. University of Washington Press, 1972.
This book is an autobiography of James Forman’s regarding his involvement in the revolutionary movement for African Americans. Forman was a consistent figure in the revolutionary movement and in the process of creating more revolutionaries to fight against civil injustices. The book has some biases of the time period of which it was written but is nonetheless useful in showing the mentality of those in the African American revolution.
The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education No. 46 (Winter, 2004-2005), p. 11
This journal describes how James Forman educated the African American race and the students of the SNCC to be able to create a better and more united America. One of Forman's greatest contributions was his writing of the "Black Manifesto" which described what the true role of the African American is in society at the time. Forman made sure he let the revolution grow on its own with nonviolent methods and did not allow setbacks to faze his determination.
The Massachusetts Review, Vol. 44, No. 1/2, A Gathering in Honor of Jules Chametzky
(Spring - Summer, 2003), pp. 88-91
This article by Julius Lester describes how Forman served briefly as the minister of foreign affairs of the Black Panther Party following his resignation from SNCC, and he voiced calls for African Americans to receive reparations for their years of enslavement. His role in the development of the SNCC was crucial to the entire revolution of the African American people. This journal truly captures the Formans involvement in all aspects of the African American revolution.
The Journal of African American History, Vol. 97, No. 1–2, Special Issue: “African Americans and
Movements for Reparations: Past, Present, and Future” (Winter–Spring 2012), pp. 39-71
James Forman played a vital role in getting reparations paid back to the African American people as shown in this article. The African American race as a whole demanded that reforms be made to the treatment of their ethnicity nationally both economically and socially. Forman was a great revolutionary figure because he believed in the ways of Martin Luther King Jr. , and was very prominent in advancing the African AMerican race in all aspects of life and changing the perception of the country.
Laue, James H. "The changing character of Negro protest." The Annals of the American Academy of
Political and Social Science 357.1 (1965): 119-126.
James Forman had a major role in the changing in the form in which the African American revolution came about. It is characterized by growing militancy on the part of thousands of Negro and white Americans, and the growth in influence of six major civil rights organizations. The initiative for change has shifted from the hands of a relatively few professional desegregationists to large numbers of average citizens who are now willing to confront the segregated system through direct action. The growth and immediate success of the sit-in movement in 1960 added a third method of effective protest—activism—to the legal and educational means which had been employed before.
The Journal of African American History, Vol. 92, No. 4, New Black Power Studies: National,
International, and Transnational Perspectives (Autumn, 2007), pp. 467-490
James Forman found that significant desegregation in America has taken place only after the development of crisis situations which demanded rapid resolution by community decision-makers. The movement is turning to an essentially political phase, requiring the major civil rights groups to utilize all three methods more fully in co-ordinated programs. James Forman realized that he could possibly change the face of the treatment and advancement of the African American in America. Across the landscape of America, Forman was recognized as a public leader especially in the case of the Little Rock, Arkansas school desegregation.